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Hi, I'm Lucy! Welcome to My Corner! I’m always interested in learning something new. Cooking, Baking, Quilling, Sewing, Crafting, I never know what is next......

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可颂第一磕Julia Child Croissants--革命尚未成功,同志还须努力  

2011-11-18 12:19:17|  分类: 快乐烘焙 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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For English Recipe Please Scroll Down to the Bottom of the Blog

      年初就有朋友给我说大家都在磕可颂,让我也试试,那会儿天天想着回国,心思早就飞了,对于这种技术性的活俺暂时没有心思学习和研究,所以就added to my“ to do list ”. 前段时间圈子里某人(哈哈说的谁自己知道哈!)老上酥皮点心,把俺给馋的。我说自己从来没有做过酥皮点心,她还不信,中式的我也是几年前刚来的时候学着做过一次酥皮月饼,我家领导不喜欢,觉得干,后来再没有做过。自从下决心要学就决定补上这一课。俺胆子大,第一次做就找了这个高难度的可颂来练习。可颂是起酥的面包,融合了面包和酥皮的特点,俺一次两种都学了,哈哈!!因为要学就在网上找了不少的中外资料,包括文字的和视频的,感觉还是咱中国烘焙的朋友们把烘焙当作学术论文来做,每一篇博文都写得很专业分析得很透彻,当然作品也是相当的有专业水准,自己直接受益,学习了不少东西,少走弯路。

    

     这次学习结合了很多朋友的博文,要感谢的是小德,她的论文很详细,方方面面全说到,是新手必读的论文,推荐要做的朋友先到她家蹲点学习。

    可颂的原理 摘自小德:可颂面团像以下图示那样一层层的面和黄油交替组成,在烤箱内,受到高温,有酵母的面皮层膨胀,但是黄油不会膨胀,反而会融化,造成面皮层之间的空隙,同时产生蒸汽,把上方面皮层向上顶,于是成品组织就会出现层次和蜂窝般的组织。如果在制作过程中黄油层不均 匀,有的地方太薄或者太热,融入了面皮层,造成上下面皮层粘连,成品的组织要么出现突兀大洞,要么没有层次,像甜面包,那就是“混酥”和“漏油”了。

----面------
----黄油----
----面------
----黄油----
----面------
----黄油----
----面------

  

    理论是有了剩下的就是实践。

  

    网上找了一大堆的方子,最后锁定了3个,比较这三个配方,结合自己初级水平,最后决定先尝试Julia Child(Julia Child 中文为:茱莉亞·蔡尔德美国的知名厨师作家与电视节目主持人。曾登上1966年11月25日的时代杂志封面,2009年故事被翻拍成电影《茱莉和朱丽叶》Julie & Julia)的配方。俺家领导可是她忠实地粉丝。从小就是看着她的cooking show长大,备受她的熏陶。我还在网上找到了她当年制作可颂Croissants全程的视频。从她不经意的言谈中让人感觉她是个很幽默的人。扯远了哈!!既然领导很崇拜,俺也想试试用她的方法来做,而且这个方子的用量很小,很适合用来练习。不过我也做了一些“瞎”调整。

    

     首先是面粉的选择。国内有些朋友用的是法国面包专用面粉,筋度和我们这里的有些不同,而且我们这里一般超市都没有,看了小德的文章知道如果选用高筋面粉不容易擀开,筋度低了成品组织会不好,所以针对一般家庭会采用混合高粉和低粉的方法,她用的是King Arthur All Purpose Flour,算是筋度高的中粉。看了Julia Child的方子她对面粉也是有特殊要求的,她用的是中筋面粉和pastry flour混合。也就是说中粉和低粉的混合方式,是适合比较初级烘焙的人,不讲究内部组织,但是制作方便比较容易成功。俺刚好是初学,加上我家只有普通的中粉,所以结合小德的文章,我就把Julia Child的方子改为了全用中粉,这样在基于原方的情况下相对提高了一些筋度希望在操作容易的基础上组织会好一些。

 IMG_4541 IMG_4542 IMG_4543

    这个方子用了基础发酵,也就是说面团揉好后不是马上冷藏而是发酵了一次1到2个小时,然后冷藏,有利于增加风味,增强筋度,但是增加了变数,不过还好面团也很容易擀开。  发酵前用剪刀在面团顶部剪出一个十字形,便于发酵,这招还是跟Julia Child学的。

 IMG_4545 IMG_4546 IMG_4547

    黄油。做这个面包国内一般要用片黄,美国的黄油都是长条状的。我看Julia Child也就是在案板上用手掌把黄油压开,包在面团里。另一个视频是把黄油在搅拌机内打成团,用面团包住后,用擀面杖把黄油打平。所以我采用了小德的方法,黄油切片,装在塑料袋里用擀面棒敲打擀平冷藏。冷藏时间有些短,不过还是按照面团和黄油软硬程度差不多的原则再包裹的。

 IMG_4549 IMG_4550 IMG_4551

   包裹。有用2/3折的,也有用十字包裹法的,我用的十字包裹法。

 IMG_4552 IMG_4553IMG_4554

    折叠。Julia Child用的是4次3折的方法,中间冷藏一次1至2个小时。比较其他朋友的做法,大多用的是3次3折,或2次4折的方法,小德原话:“虽然可颂组织强调的是层次,但不是层次越多越好,所以也就不是折叠越多次越好。折叠太多,每层之间的黄油就薄,混酥机会就大。即使不混酥,每个蜂巢也会比较小。”所以在比较了大家的做法后,觉得也做3次3折的,必定我也想看看这蜂巢的样子。第一次擀开后就面皮就很薄了,基本上能看到下面的黄油,心里隐隐的觉得好像混酥漏油的可能性已经有了。还不是要硬着头皮看结果。

IMG_4560 IMG_4564IMG_4563 

   整形。最后整形Julia Child的方法是擀成51/2”的正方形再切成两个直边三角形,当然我的就不是一个正方形,特别是边上的料。用擀面杖把那个直角边稍微朝外擀成一个斜边,我在操作上就有些困难,不能做成两边相等的情况,卷出来的牛角两边有些不一致。这个方法要调整。

    我是星期三下午开始动工发酵直到晚上折叠整形,感觉还可以,不是想象中的那么困难,因为当时已经太晚了就没有二次发酵烤制直接放冰箱冷藏。星期四早上我拿出来室温第二次发酵发了差不多5个小时,还是没有发起来,个头很小不饱满,知道这次试验不妙。不过还是要把它烤出来看看。

    烤制。Julia Child的方子烤制温度是475F/250C烤12-15分钟,我调整为450F/230C烤了12分钟,因为今天烤箱灯坏了,要不时地开门察看颜色,搞得有些不爽。按照小德的说法,颜色太浅就是贫血,所以我稍微多烤了一下,我家领导就发杂音了,他说他吃了那么多的可颂就没有看到过烤得这么深的,感觉就是烤糊了,如果是店里卖他是不会买的,不过烤好后他还是吃下去了,而且不止一个,哈哈!!

 

可颂第一磕Croissants--革命尚未成功,同志还须努力 - Lucy学厨 - Lucys Kitchen
 

      说说我的失败。哈哈其实不用说,懂的人一看就知道整个可颂不饱满有些扁平,顶部有混酥漏油的迹象,好几层都连一块了,发酵不完全问题,空洞太小了,我发了5个小时呢!!内部组织都不均匀,虽然有蜂巢的样子,但是大小不一致。这个就是技术问题了,要多练习,不断提高,勤学苦练才有成功的可能,哈哈 要不怎么磕可颂那么让人着迷呢?

     如果这个方子没有被我自作主张的改来改去,也许成功的可能性还是有的,必定Julia Child的方子经过了很多人的验证。没有做过前不知道这叠被子是怎么回事,做过一次就知道了。起酥的面包确实很好吃,给了点点一个小同学三下两口就下去一个,如果不看内部组织蒙着眼睛吃的话,我是一点儿意见都没有的,黄油酥皮太香了。方子我就不上了必定不完美,下次试试不同的配方。


Julia Child Croissants

Adapted for Julia Child cooking show, The English writing from Mamaliga, but I did some changes, you can find out my notes in red color. For more details , you can go to Mamaliga.

Flour Options

Probably the most important step in the recipe is to use the right flour type for this type of pastry. Julia suggests using a low-gluten flour so the dough can be easily rolled without becoming rubbery, etc. You could for instance use a mix of 1 part unbleached all-purpose and 2 parts unbleached pastry flour. She also adds tasteless oil to the mix, to help tenderize the dough.  

Yeast Dough

Even if today’s dry yeast has a very small chance of failing to do its job, I will give it a chance to prove itself to be worthy of our croissant dough.

1 Tsp dry yeast
1/4 Tsp salt
1/2 Tb sugar
1/4 cup warm water (not more than 110 degrees, otherwise you’ll kill the yeast)

Start by mixing all these ingredients with the warm water until dissolved, and let it sit for 5 min. If the yeast is active (and it should) it will form a soft foamy mass on its surface.

Croissant Dough

2 Cups of your flour mix (see Flour Options above). note:I used all purpose flour
1 Tb sugar
3/4 Tsp salt note:I think it was too much,should use less 
1/3 to 1/2 cups tepid milk
if using unbleached flour: 2 Tb vegetable oil (I used Canola)
if using bleached flour: 4 Tb vegetable oil

1.Make the dough.

Blend all the above in a mixing bowl (don’t forget the yeast mix)I used dough hook knead about 3-5 min.until become elastic, smooth.Time to rise. Plop the dough into a bowl and do a criss-cross scissors snip on its surface to help it rise. Then cover it with a plastic wrap, and let it rise until it becomes double in bulk:Rising time depends on the room temperature. I found that if I do this in the summer, rising is faster than in winter. About 1 to 1-1/2 hours at say 75 degrees will suffice. Don’t keep it in temperatures higher than 85 degrees or longer that needed (over-rise) since that wll impart an unpleasant taste. At this point you can retard the rising by placing the bowl in the refrigerator.Then, punch it down into a flat circle, wrap it in wax-paper and chill it for about 20-30 minutes. The chilling is important as it makes working the dough much easier:

2.Rolls, Turns and Chills

I cut the butter to pieces,then place them in a plastic bag,arrange the pieces about 5" square,use rolling pin make then smooth, then chill them about 1 hour before use.

Roll the dough to about 9" square place the butter sheet on the top of your dough,Now gently flip the dough edges (without ripping it!) over the butter and seal in the butter by pinching the dough.now you have a nice package of dough with a stick of butter inside, ready to be massaged into many layers. For that, flour your rolling pin and both sides of your dough, place it on your board with the seal side up and start gently rolling back and forth from the center towards the edges to form a rectangle of about 15″ long and 5″ wide. It doesn’t HAVE to be exact, but try to at least get close to that dimension. If there are butter bits that poke through, just pinch the dough over that spot to re-seal it. Also, if the dough became too rubbery (read warm), chill it again for about 20 minutes and continue from where you’ve left it. What you want here is to evenly spread the butter between the two dough layers (this gets you ready for your next step):Turns #1 and #2

Okay. What’s a turn in culinary lingo? Julia Child defines it as having the dough folded like a business letter in 3 even layers. And really, that’s exactly what it is. Gently fold the bottom of your rectangle to the center of the dough then fold the top flap over it the same way. That’s defined as turn #1:Then once again, roll out the dough to the initial 15″ long and 5″ wide rectangle to prepare it for turn #2 just as before. Keep the edges as straight as possible (I re-align them with the rolling pin). You will see that it will look more like a rectangle than before. Rinse and repeat – you got it right?By this time (after turn#2) your dough needs some chilling to be able to roll it another 2 turns. Leave it folded as a business letter, flour it lightly, wrap it in wax-paper and place it in the fridge for about 1-2 hours.

3. Turns #3 and #4

After the time spent in the fridge (1 to 2 hours) the dough is relaxed and ready for turn #3 and turn #4. I just turned 3 times.Really nothing special here. Just repeat the same process as for the previous two turns – two rollings into the 15″ long and 5″ wide rectangle and two business letter style folding. You will end up with 81 layers of butter between 82 layers of dough. Again, by this time the dough is probably getting to rubbery to work with, so back in the fridge it goes for a 2 hours chill.

4.Croissants Shaping

After the 2 hour chill, out of the fridge the croissant dough comes and onto a lightly floured board. This time roll it into a 20″ long by 5″ wide rectangle. Try to keep the edges as straight as possible:

Next, make a middle crosswise cut and chill one half:

Now, roll the one half of the croissants dough into a 12″ long by 5″ wide rectangle and cut it in thirds and chill two of the thirds:

Now take one of the thirds and roll it into a 5-1/2″ square and cut it on the bias. Mine here doesn’t look terribly square-ish but you get the idea:

Roll the triangles out to extend to about 7″ long and shape it as much as you can into a isosceles triangle (where two sides are equal in length). Now starting at the base, roll up the dough towards the tip of the triangle, then bend it into a crescent moon form, and place it on a buttered 12″ x 14″ baking sheet (not too close to each other so they don’t fuse together while rising and baking) with the tip of the triangle on the bottom so that it wouldn’t unwrap during baking. Form the rest of the dough the same way into a total of 12 croissants, and let it rest for an hour covered with a plastic wrap. This might be a good time to get your oven going – set it to 475 degrees. I set it to 450F You can freeze the risen croissants for later baking and pop them in the oven while frozen:

Glazing and Baking

Egg-wash. Paint the risen croissants with one egg beater mixed with 1/2 Tsp water.I did two times,one was before second time rise,one was before baking.

Then pop them in the pre-heated 475 degree oven and really – keep an eye on them because they bake very fast. Usually something between 10 to 15 minutes depending on how dark brown you want them to look. Don’t do any other activities during this fast bake – you will forgot about the oven like I did so many times. I tend to leave them in until they turn dark-brown. Let them cool on a rack for about 10 minutes and resist the temptation of eating.


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